Safety Violations: Any alleged violation observed during an inspection will be classified as either “serious,” “general,” or “regulatory.” Depending on the circumstances, any of these violations may carry the additional designation of “repeat” or “willful.”
Scaffold: Any temporary elevated platform and its supporting structure used for supporting workmen or materials or both.
Sealable equipment: Equipment enclosed in a case or cabinet that is provided with a means of sealing or locking so that live parts cannot be made accessible without opening the enclosure. The equipment may or may not be operable without opening the enclosure.
Sectional ladder: A sectional ladder is a non-self-supporting portable ladder, nonadjustable in length, consisting of two or more sections of ladder so constructed that the sections may be combined to function as a single ladder. Its size is designated by the overall length of the assembled sections.
Self-retracting lifeline/lanyard means a deceleration device containing a drum-wound line which can be slowly extracted from, or retracted onto, the drum under slight tension during normal employee movement, and which, after onset of a fall, automatically locks the drum and arrests the fall.
Separately derived system: A premises wiring system whose power is derived from generator, transformer, or converter windings and has no direct electrical connection, including a solidly connected grounded circuit conductor, to supply conductors originating in another system.
Service: The conductors and equipment for delivering energy from the electricity supply system to the wiring system of the premises served.
Service conductors: The supply conductors that extend from the street main or from transformers to the service equipment of the premises supplied.
Service drop: The overhead service conductors from the last pole or other aerial support to and including the splices, if any, connecting to the service-entrance conductors at the building or other structure.
Service-entrance conductors, overhead system: The service conductors between the terminals of the service equipment and a point usually outside the building, clear of building walls, where joined by tap or splice to the service drop.
Service-entrance conductors, underground system: The service conductors between the terminals of the service equipment and the point of connection to the service lateral. Where service equipment is located outside the building walls, there may be no service-entrance conductors, or they may be entirely outside the building.
Service equipment: The necessary equipment, usually consisting of a circuit breaker or switch and fuses, and their accessories, located near the point of entrance of supply conductors to a building or other structure, or an otherwise defined area, and intended to constitute the main control and means of cutoff of the supply.
Service raceway: The raceway that encloses the service-entrance conductors.
Servicing (maintenance): Workplace activities such as constructing, installing, setting up, adjusting, inspecting, modifying, maintaining and/or servicing machines or equipment, including lubrication, cleaning or unjamming of machines or equipment, and making adjustments or tool changes, where employees could be exposed to the unexpected energization or startup of the equipment or release of hazardous energy.
Shade: blockage of direct sunlight. Canopies, umbrellas and other temporary structures or devices may be used to provide shade. One indicator that blockage is sufficient is when objects do not cast a shadow in the area of blocked sunlight. Shade is not adequate when heat in the area of shade defeats the purpose of shade, which is to allow the body to cool. For example, a car sitting in the sun does not provide acceptable shade to a person inside it, unless the car is running with air conditioning.
Sheeting: the members of a shoring system that retain the earth in position and in turn are supported by other members of the shoring system.
Shield (Shield system) means a structure used in an excavation to withstand cave-ins and which will protect employees working within the shield system. Shields can be permanent structures or portable units moved along as work progresses. Shields used in trenches are usually referred to as trench boxes or trench shields.
Shoring (Shoring system) means a structure that is built or put in place to support the sides of an excavation to prevent cave-ins.
Side-rolling ladder: A side-rolling ladder is a semifixed ladder, nonadjustable in length, supported by attachments to a guide rail, which is generally fastened to shelving, the plane of the ladder being also its plane of motion.
Sides – See Faces.
Side-Step Fixed Ladder – A fixed ladder that requires a person to get off at the top to step to the side of the ladder side rails to reach the landing.
Signaling circuit: Any electric circuit that energizes signaling equipment.
Silo: a structure for storing bulk materials. Silos are most commonly used for bulk storage of grain, coal, cement, carbon black, woodchips, food products and sawdust. Three types of silos are in widespread use today: tower silos, bunker silos, and bag silos.
Single-Cleat Ladder – A ladder consisting of a pair of side rails connected together by cleats, rungs, or steps.
Sloping (Sloping system): sloping the sides of the excavation away from the excavation to protect employees from cave-ins. The required slope will vary with soil type, weather, and surface or near surface loads that may affect the soil in the area of the trench (such as adjacent buildings, vehicles near the edge of the trench and so forth).
Slow Response – means the setting on the sound level meter that averages out impulses of brief duration that would cause wide fluctuation in the sound level meter reading.
Snaphook means a connector comprised of a hook-shaped member with a normally closed keeper, or similar arrangement, which may be opened to permit the hook to receive an object and, when released, automatically closes to retain the object. Snaphooks are generally one of two types: (1) The locking type with a self-closing, self-locking keeper which remains closed and locked until unlocked and pressed open for connection or disconnection; or (2) The non-locking type with a self-closing keeper which remains closed until pressed open for connection or disconnection. As of January 1, 1998, the use of a non-locking snaphook as part of personal fall arrest systems and positioning device systems is prohibited.
Special-purpose ladder: A special-purpose ladder is a portable ladder which represents either a modification or a combination of design or construction features in one of the general-purpose types of ladders previously defined, in order to adapt the ladder to special or specific uses.
Stable rock means natural solid mineral material that can be excavated with vertical sides that will remain intact while exposed.
Stair rail System: A vertical barrier erected along the unprotected sides and edges of a stairway to prevent employees from falling to lower levels.
Stalking: Stalking occurs when any person willfully, maliciously and repeatedly follows or harasses another and makes a credible threat with the intent to place that person in reasonable fear for his/her safety or the safety of his/her immediate family.
Standard railing: A vertical barrier erected along exposed edges of a floor opening, wall opening, ramp, platform, or runway to prevent falls of persons.
Standard strength and construction: Any construction of railings, covers, or other guards that meets the requirements of 1910.23
Standard Threshold Shift: means a change in hearing threshold relative to the baseline audiogram of an average of 10 dB (corrected for age) at 2000, 3000 and 4000 Hz in either ear.
Stepladder: A stepladder is a self-supporting portable ladder, nonadjustable in length, having flat steps and a hinged back. Its size is designated by the overall length of the ladder measured along the front edge of the side rails.
Strain Relief: A mechanical device that prevents force from being transmitted to the connections or terminals of a cable or extension cord.
Stair railing: A vertical barrier erected along exposed sides of a stairway to prevent falls of persons.
Structural ramp: a ramp built of steel or wood, usually used for vehicle access. Ramps made of soil or rock are not considered structural ramps.
Sun Stroke: see heat illness
Support system: a structure such as underpinning, bracing, or shoring, which provides support to an adjacent structure, underground installation, or the sides of an excavation.
(a) General-use switch. A switch intended for use in general distribution and branch circuits. It is rated in amperes, and it is capable of interrupting its rated current at its rated voltage.
(b) General-use snap switch. A form of general-use switch so constructed that it can be installed in flush device boxes or on outlet box covers, or otherwise used in conjunction with wiring systems recognized by this subpart.
(c) Isolating switch. A switch intended for isolating an electric circuit from the source of power. It has no interrupting rating, and it is intended to be operated only after the circuit has been opened by some other means.
(d) Motor-circuit switch: A switch, rated in horsepower, capable of interrupting the maximum operating overload current of a motor of the same horsepower rating as the switch at the rated voltage.
Switching devices: (Over 600 volts, nominal.) Devices designed to close and/or open one or more electric circuits. Included in this category are circuit breakers, cutouts, disconnecting (or isolating) switches, disconnecting means, and interrupter switches.