OSHA Safety Manuals | Ladders – Potential Hazards
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Ladders

Avoiding potential hazards when working on ladders

LaddersWorking on and around stairways and ladders is hazardous. Stairways and ladders are major sources of injuries and fatalities among construction workers for example, and many of the injuries are serious enough to require time off the job. OSHA rules apply to all stairways and ladders used in construction, alteration, repair, painting, decorating and demolition of worksites covered by OSHA’s construction safety and health standards.

Loads

  • Self-supporting (foldout) and non-self-supporting (leaning) portable ladders must be able to support at least four times the maximum intended load, except extra-heavy-duty metal or plastic ladders, which must be able to sustain 3.3 times the maximum intended load.

Angle

  • Non-self-supporting ladders, which must lean against a wall or other support, are to be positioned at such an angle that the horizontal distance from the top support to the foot of the ladder is about 14 the working length of the ladder. (Figure 2.)
  • In the case of job-made wooden ladders, that angle should equal about 18 the working length. This minimizes the strain of the load on ladder joints that may not be as strong as on commercially manufactured ladders.

Rungs

  • Ladder rungs, cleats, or steps must be parallel, level, and uniformly spaced when the ladder is in position for use. Rungs must be spaced between 10″-14″ inches apart.
  • For extension trestle ladders, the spacing must be 8″-18″ inches for the base, and 6″-12″ inches on the extension section.
  • Rungs must be so shaped that an employee’s foot cannot slide off, and must be skid-resistant.

Slipping

  • Ladders are to be kept free of oil, grease, wet paint, and other slipping hazards.
  • Wood ladders must not be coated with any opaque covering, except identification or warning labels on one face only of a side rail.

Other Requirements

  • Foldout or stepladders must have a metal spreader or locking device to hold the front and back sections in an open position when in use.
  • When two or more ladders are used to reach a work area, they must be offset with a landing or platform between the ladders.
  • The area around the top and bottom of ladder must be kept clear.
  • Ladders must not be tied or fastened together to provide longer sections, unless they are specifically designed for such use.
  • Never use a ladder for any purpose other than the one for which it was designed.

See osha.gov for ladder standards

Click here to download the ladder safety program